Kabhoni

(Redirected from Carbon)
Kabhoni
Diamond-and-graphite-with-scale.jpg
Ngoda (ruboshwe) ne Grafati (rudyi), mahalotropu maviri eKabhoni
6C
Mahalotropu grafati, ngodza ne dzimwe
  • (nemamwe mahalotrupu ayo)
Ratidziko
  • grafati: tema, inotaridzika sesimbi
  • ngoda: inoburikidza
Huremu hwe Hatomu

Ar, std(C)

[12.0096, 12.0116] conventional: 12.011
Kabhoni muTafura ye Nhangande
Numeri ye Hatomu 6
Boka boka 14 (boka re kabhoni)
Rupotera rupotera 2
Bloku bloku - p
Konfigari ye mhodzigetsi [He] 2s2 2p2
Mhodzigetsi pa-shell 2, 4
Mutumbi we miriki
Fhezi pa STP godo (solidhi)
Poyindi ye Sublimation 3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Dhensiti (near r.t.)
  • amufurosi: 1.8–2.1 g/cm3
  • grafati: 2.267 g/cm3
  • ngoda: 3.515 g/cm3
Poiyindi itatu 4600 K, ​10,800 kPa
Fyuzheni ye Kudziya grafati: 117 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity grafati: 8.517 J/(mol·K)

ngoda: 6.155 J/(mol·K)

Mutumbi we Hatomu
Miriro ye Oxidation −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4
  • (a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.55
Ito (eneji) ye kunonda
  • 1st: 1086.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2352.6 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4620.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius sp3: 77 pm

sp2: 73 pm sp: 69 pm

Rhedhiyasi ye Vhandewaarusi: 170 pm
Spectral lines of carbon
Dzimwe miriki
Natural occurrence primordial
Strakcha ye kistaro grafati: ​chiugonyanhatu

(tema)

Strakcha ye kistaro ngoda: ​isachiso-pakati ngoda-kyubhu

(face-centered diamond-cubic)

(clear)

spidhi ye ruzha thin rod ngoda: 18,350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion ngoda: 0.8 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity grafati: 119–165 W/(m⋅K)

ngoda: 900–2300 W/(m⋅K)

Mukweso we magetsi grafati: 7.837 µΩ⋅m
Raya re Magineti huguramagineti (diamagnetic)
Molar magnetic susceptibility ngoda: −5.9×10−6 cm3/mol
Modhulasi ya Young ngoda: 1050 GPa
Shear modhulasi ngoda: 478 GPa
Uwandu we modhulasi ngoda: 442 GPa
Rheshiyo ye Pwasoni ngoda: 0.1
Kuoma mu u-Mohs grafati: 1–2

ngoda: 10

Numeri ye CAS
  • hatomu kabhoni: 7440-44-0
  • grafati: 7782-42-5
  • ngoda: 7782-40-3
Nhoroondo
Kuvhumburwa Vaijipita ne Vasumeri (3750 BCE)
Akaziva kuti inhangande ndi: Antoine Lavoisier (1789)
Enzanhara ikuru ye Kabhoni
Enzahara Uzhinji Hafu-Upenyu (t1/2) Modhi ye

bvurunuro

Prodhakti
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% stable
13C 1.1% stable
14C trace 5730 y β 14N

Kabhoni (kubva kuChiratini: carbo kureva "marasha"; muChishona unogona kunzi Murasha kana Rhasha) inhangande re mushonga rine chiratidzo C uye numeri ye hatomu 6. Isinausimba ne hombaina (tetravalent) ichiita kuti mhodzigetsi mana avepo kuti aumbe bhondi rigombedzwana re mushonga. Ndeyeboka rechigumi nemana retafura yerupotera. Kabhoni inongoumba inenge 0.025% chete yegoko reRinopasi. Enzanhara nhatu dzinongoitika, 12C ne13C ichidzikama, ukuwo 14C irhedhiyosomo (radionuclide), ichiora nehafu yeupenyu hwemakore angangoita 5,730. Kabhoni chimwe chezvinhu zvishoma zvinozivikanwa kubva kare-kare.

TsananguroEdit

Kabhoni iri pachinzvimbo 15 yenhangande yakanyanya kuwanda mugoko reRinopasi, uye iripachinzvimbo chechina chakanyanya kuwanda muchadenga nekuwanda mushure mesikamanzi (hidhirojeni), Ran'a (chimuzuva; hiliyamu), uye okisijeni. Kuwanda kwe Kabhoni, kusiyanisa kwemikumbanidzwa iri oganiki yayo, uye kugona kugadzika mirongo (polymers) pahujoto unowanzosanganwa nawo paRinopasi inoita kuti chinhu ichi chishande sechinhu chakafanana chehupenyu hwese hunozivikanwa. Iri pachinzvimbo chechipiri panhangande dzinowanzo wanikwa mumwiri wemunhu ne masi (mass) (zvingaita 18.5%) mushure meokisijeni.

Mahatomu eKabhoni anogona kubatana pamwechete nenzira dzakasiyana, zvichikonzera akasiyana mahalotropu eKabhoni. Mahalotropu anozivikanwa anosanganisira grafati, ngoda, amufurosi kabhoni uye fullerenes. Hunhu hwekabhoni hunosiyana zvakanyanya neiyo fomu yechihalotropu. Semuenzaniso, grafati ine opaque uye dema ukuwo ngoda rinonyanya kujeka. Grafati yakapfava zvekuti inogadzira mutsetse pabepa (saka zita rayo, kubva pashoko reChigiriki rekuti "γράφειν" zvinoreva "kunyora"), nepo ngoda riri iro rakaomesesa rinoitika zvakasikwa rinozivikanwa. Grafati iconductor yakanaka yemagetsi nepo ngoda rine conductivity ye magetsi yakaderera. Pasi pemamiriro akajairwa, ngoda, mananochubhu ekabhoni, uye grafini (graphene) zvine akanyanya kupisa ekupisa kwezvinhu zvese zvinozivikanwa. Ese mahalotopu ekabhoni akasimba pasi pezvakajairwa mamiriro, uye graphite iri iyo yakanyanya kugadzikana thermodynamically fomu pakudziya kwakajairwa nekumanikidza. Izvo zvinodzivirira kemikari uye zvinoda hujoto yakanyanya kuita kunyangwe neokisijeni.

Iyo yakajairika oxidation mamiriro emikumbanidzwa eKabhoni asiri oganiki ndeye +4, nepo +2 inowanikwa muKabhoni monoksaidhi uye transition metal carbonyl complexes. Iwo makuru masosi ekabhoni asiri oganiki anosanganisa limestones, dolomites uye kabhoni dhioksaidhi, asi akakosha akawanda anoitika mu organic deposits yemarasha, peat, mafuta, uye methane clathrates. Kabhoni inoumba numeri huru yemakomboni, kupfuura chero chinhu chipi nechipi, ine makomboni anoda kusvika miriyoni gumi atsanangurwa kusvika pari zvino, asi nhamba iyoyo inongova chidimbu chidimbu chenhamba yezvinofungwa zvinobvira makomboni pasi pemamiriro akajairwa. Nechikonzero ichi, kabhoni yagara ichinzi "mambo wezvinhu".

ZitaEdit

Ruvambo (etimoloji)Edit

Zita rokuti Kabhoni rakabva kupashoko reChiratini rokuti carbo rinoreva kuti marasha, muchishona ringagona kunzi Rhasha kuti rikwanise kutsauraniswa ne shoko rinoshandiswa mazuva ose rasha.

Mashoko ashandiswaEdit

Mabviro eruzivoEdit

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