Upangamutowo

Peji rinori ndere Upangamutowo muRuambamhenyu, tarisai peji re Upangamutowo pacharo

Panguro ye upango we ruambamhenyu, pane mareniki makuru eupangamutowo makuru masere. Chiara hachina mavuso rimwe kana maviri.

Muruambamhenyu, upangamutowo (ku Chingezi: taxonomy) kana upangamtowo inziri ye sainzi yekutumidza, kupachirevo uye kupanga (classifying) mapoka eungambari reruambamhenyu kuchishandiswa ma-charactestics anogovanwa. Maungambari anoiswa muboka reumto (taxa) (mto (taxon) pacharo), uye mapoka aya anopihwa reniki ye upangamutowo; maboka akapihwa reniki anogona kuunganidzwa kuti aumbe boka riri wedzera nereniki kuru, saka panobva pasikwa upangamutowo wekuringanisa. Mareniki e purinzipari munhasi anosanganisa chiara -> muvuso -> faramu (Patsanuro inowanzo shandiswa mubhotanika munzvimbo yeFaramu) -> musaku -> raya -> mhuri -> mbari -> rudzi.

Upangamtowo wanhasi wakasikwa ne mubhotanika wechiSwidhishi anonzi Carl Linnaeus, akasika reniki yemutandira inozivikanwwa kunzi Upangamotowo waLinnaean, yeku ganha maungambari uye chizita-piri nomeclature chekutumidza maungambari.

ZitaEdit

Vambo re shoko

Muruambamhenyu, taxonomy (kubva kuChigiriki τάξις ( taxis )  'kuronga; kupanga', uye -νομία ( -nomia )  'mutowo') ndiko kudzidza kwesainzi kwekutumidza mazita, kutsanangura ( kudzingisa) uye kupatsanura mapoka ezvisikwa zvipenyu zvinoenderana nehunhu hwakagovaniswa.

Kupiwa kwe zita

Zvichiendererana nepeji re Upangandimo, chivakamberi chekuti -nomy mu Chingezi, chivakashure chinonzi Upanga muChishona.

HupangoEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Hupango mu sainzi

HupenyuEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Hupenyu

Hupenyu (life)

ChiaraEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Chiara

Chiara (domain) kana dhomeni kutora shoko reChingezi, ilevel inoshandiswa muruambamhenyu kupatsanura zvinhu zvipenyu mumapoka. Chiara chimwe ne chimwe chinopatsanurwa muzvimwene (empires) akasiyana. Chiara ndiro reniki kuru re maungambari echiara chemutandira cheutatu, che upangamutowo wakasikwa na Carl Woese (muna 1990.) Chimwe chekuziva ndechekuti, zvichienderana nemutandira, muti we upenyu unosanganisa zviara zvitaura: Arukeya (archaea) zvichienderana neshoko reChigiriki ἀρχαῖα (arkhaîa), Utachiwona (bacteria), and Yukeriya (eukarya).

MuvusoEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Muvuso

Muvuso ishoko rishikushandiswa kumirira kingdom mu ruambamhenyu muChishona. Muvuso uri pareniki yechipiri mu upangamutowo, pazasi pechiara. Mavuso akapatsanurwa mu mapoka madiki anonzi Faramu. Muchinyakare, mamwe manwadhi echikoro, e kuAmerika ne Kanadha aishandisa mutandira we mavuso manhanhatu; Umhuka (animalia), Udzinde (plantae), chahuvhe[1] (fungi), purotista (protista), Arukeya (archaea), utachiwona (bacteria), asi manwadhi echikoro e kuBhuritani, Indiya, Girisi, Bhuraziri ne dzimwe nyika aive ne mavuso mashanu basi (Umhuka, Udzinde, Chahuvhe, Purotista ne Monera)

FaramuEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Faramu

Faramu (phylum)

MusakuEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Musaku

Musaku (class)

RayaEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Raya

Raya (order)

MhuriEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Mhuri

Mhuri (family)

MbariEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Mbari

Mbari (genus)

RudziEdit

Tarisai futi peji re Rudzi

Rudzi (species)

Shoko rekuti renikiEdit

Tarisai futi peji re reniki

Shoko rekuti reniki ririkutorwa kubva kuChingezi nemitauro yakashandiswa kusika mutauro wacho, riri kushandiswa kumirira shoko rekuti 'rank'. Shoko iri rasarudzwa kuitira kuti risa sanganiswe nemamwe mashoko emitauro ye Chishona.

Shoko rekuti rengi kana rhengi rambofungwa asi rakafananisa neshoko rekuti 'rangi', rinoshandiswa kumirira 'chroma' - iro shoko rekuti rangi rakabva kumitauro yeChibantu, uye rinoshandiswa kuti shoko rekuti colour ne chromatics - ese anomirira 'ruvara' muChishona, asi kuti akwaniswe kusiyaniswa shoko rekuti rangi rakatorwa.

  • Richibva kuChingezi chePakati rank (“strong, proud”), kubva kuChingezi chekare ranc (“proud, haughty, arrogant, insolent, forward, overbearing, showy, ostentatious, splendid, bold, valiant, noble, brave, strong, full-grown, mature”), kubva kuChiproto-Madokero Jemeni *rank, kubva ku Chiproto-Jemeni *rankaz (“straight”), kubva kuChiproto Indo-Yuropu *h₃reǵ- (“straight, direct”). Zvichiendera na neChidhachi rank (“slender, slim”), uye Chijemini chakadzika rank (“slender, projecting, lank”), Chidhenishi rank (“straight, erect, slender”), Chiswidhishi rank (“slender, shaky, wonky”), Chiaisirendi rakkur (“straight, slender, bold, valiant”).[2]

Mamwe mapeji ekutarisaEdit

Mabviro eruzivoEdit

  1. Vashona, "fungi" Yakatariswa: 28 Nyamavhuvhu 2021
  2. en:wikitionary, "rank" Yakatariswa: 28 Nyamavhuvhu 2021