Chichayina

Chichayina (ku Chingezi: Chinese, Chindevere: Isishayina;) mutauro wekuChayina, uye unotaurwa nevanhu vazhinji vepasirore kunyanya kuEzhiya. MuchiChayina chakareruka unonzi: 汉语; uye muchiChayina chechinyakare unonzi: 漢語 (Hànyǔ) pamusoro pezvo rimwe zita reChayinisi i中文 (Zhōngwén) kunyanya kumutauro wakanyorwa).

Chichayina chakanyorwa
Chichayina chichitaurwa
Chichayina chakareuruka 汉语
Chichayina chechinyakare 漢語
Chirevo chezita Mutauro weHan
Chichayina (pachinonyorwa)
Chichayina 中文
Chirevo chezita Pakati / Chinyorwa cheChichayina

Chayinisi iboka remhando dzakasiyana dzemitauro dzinoumba bazi reSinitiki (Sinitic) remitauro yeSino-Tibheti, inotaurwa nerudzi rwechiChayina ruzhinji uye mazhinji mashoma madzinza muChayina Huru. Vanenge vanhu 1.3 bhiriyoni (kana vangangoita 16% yevagari vepasirese) vanotaura mhando dzeChichayina semutauro wavo wekutanga.

Mutauro weboka uye mutauroEdit

Icho chaicho chinopfuura mutauro mumwe chete asi boka remitauro yakasiyana nemitauro. Vanoti zvavasinganzwisisi mumwe asi kubvira makore 1000 havana vose vaishandisa chete rugwaro pamwe nemifananidzo izvi. Chinyorwa cheChichayina chinoshandisa izwi rimwe chete pazwi rese saka munhu wese anonzwisisa zvinyorwa kunyangwe akaverenga uye achidudza zvakasiyana.

Huwandu hwevatauriEdit

Huwandu hwevatauri veChichayina mitauro ingangoita 1,200,000,000 kana vanhu vanopfuura bhiriyoni rimwe chete. Pakutanga kwezana ramakore re20 pakati pemitauro nemutauro wainge wakakura kwazvo. Kubva shanduko yeChichayina ya1911 chimiro chemutauro wepamutemo chakavakwa unonzi Chimandarini . Mazuva ano zvinokurukurwa kana kunyatsonzwisiswa pakati pevakawanda vese maChayina. Vatauri vemitauro yese yeChichayina vachiri kunzwisisana kuburikidza nekunyora - sekunge vaive vadzidzi.

Ruzha uye inzwiEdit

Hunhu hwakasarudzika hwemitauro yeChichayina ndiwo musiyano mukuru pakati pemainzwi (tone). Izwi rekuti "ma" rinogona kuva nemanyorero mana akasiyana zvachose zvichienderana nemadudzirwo akasiyana eizwi.

inzwi poshi inzwi piri inzwi tatu inzwi ina inzwi shanu
inzwi rakadaro rakakwirira inzwi rinokwira inzwi rinodonha

uye rinokwira kumusoro

inzwi rinoita kakudonha kwakapinza inzwi riri neutral
mā = amai má = bangi mǎ = bhiza mà = kutuka ma = here
 
rutsetsero yeChichayina

KunyoraEdit

Chichayina chinonyorwa nemavara anoreva izwi rimwe chete kwete zviyero chete kana mavara. Asi mazwi mazhinji echiChichayina ane syllable imwe chete. Duramazwi rakakura remitauro rine mamaki anopfuura makumi mana ezviuru - vakadzidza kwazvo maChichayina vanhu vanoziva nezve zviuru zvitanhatu kusvika zviuru zvitanhatu. Pepanhau chairo rinoshandisa mamaki zviuru zvitatu. Hurumende inoti munhu anokwanisa kuverenga nekunyora kana akabata mamaki anosvika zviuru zviviri.

Kubva chimurenga cheChayina cha1949 hurumende yakagovera mamakisi akareruka. Kune zvakare zvirongwa zvekurerutsa mutauro, ndiko kuti, kukudziridza chiperengo cheChiratini .

Chichayina chinoshandiswawo kunyora Chikoriya uye Chijapanai manyorero .

KuparadziraEdit

Chichayina ndiwo mutauro wepamutemo mu People's Republic of China, Republic of China (Taiwani) neSingapore. Inokurukurwawo nezvizvarwa zveChichayina muIndonezhiya neMarezhiya.

Mutauro neMitauronyinaEdit

Nyanzvi dzinorava mapoka mana emitauro mukati meChichayina pamwe chete nenumeri yevatauri:

  • Guan (Mandarin) 北方 話 / 北方 话 kana 官 話 / 官 话, (vatauri 850 miriyoni) ,
  • Wu 吳 / 吴 (kusanganisa ne Shanghai) (vatauri 90 miriyoni) ,
  • Yue (Cantonese) 粵 / 粤, (vatauri 80 miriyoni) ,
  • Min 閩 / 闽, kusanganisa zve Taiwanese, (vatauri 50 miriyoni),
  • Xiang 湘, (vatauri 35 miriyoni),
  • Hakka 客家 kana 客, (vatauri 35 miriyoni) ,
  • Gan 贛 / 赣, (vatauri 20 miriyoni)

Mumitauro yechiBantuEdit