ChiShona

(Redirected from Shona)
ChiShona
General Information
Nyika Zimbabwe, Botswana neMozambique
ISO 639
ISO 639-1 sn
ISO 639-2 sna
ISO 639-3

Chishona (/tʃiːʃoʊnɑː/) Chivanhu kana Standard Shona (n. Sitandadhi Shona (S.S)) mutauro unobatanidza ndimi dzakawanda dzinotaurwa muZimbabwe, Botswana neMozambique. Mitauronyina kana muyambonyina inobatanidzwa ichinzi ChiShona inosanganisira: Chikaranga, Chimanyika, Chizezuru, Chikorekore, Chindau, Chibudya, Chitonga nemimwewo.[1][2]

Muenzano wemabhii eChishona.

Zvakadaro zvakafanira kuti tionesane kuti kune vamwe vatauri vasingafare kuti vanzi vari muboka remutauro weChishona - ivava vanoona mitauro yavo semitauro yakazvimirira yoga isiri pasi peChishona.[2]

Bhuku renganonyorwa rekutanga rakanyorwa mugore ra1957 naSolomon Mutswairo rinonzi Feso.

Vanhu vakaronga kuti Chishona chive chinonyoreka ndiClement Doke naGeorge Glynn Fortune.

Kune kusa wirirana kwemanyorerwe emutauro weChiShona zvichibva pakuti vatauri vazhinji vari kutadza kubvuma (recognise) kuvako kwemashoko (words) madiki akaita sekunge anotevera aya: ku, pa, ma, va, aka, zvichingo daro. Zvakafanana nekuvapo kwemashoko anenge I, of, is, for paChirungu. Semuenzaniso, ndima yechipiri kubva kumusoro yaifanira kunyorwa ichiti, "Zvakadaro zava fanira kuti tiwonesane kuti kune vamwe vatauri".

Tika kwanisa kunyora tichidai zvinoita nyore kune vanoda kunyora kana kusika mapurogiramu (programs) kana sofutiwee (software) kana maEpu (app) yekuturukira mutauro wedu weChishona.

Mabhii e chiSitandadhi ShonaEdit

MuChishona shoko rekuti Mabhiirinoreva kuti Arufabheti (Chirungu: Alphabet) kana 'letters' (maretazi) muChirungu. Muchiverenga rangarirai kuti Sitandadhi Shona (S.S.) inokwereta mashoko kune mimwe mitauro yeShona, kunyanya chiZezuru (predominently) ne chiKaranga.[2]

Mamwe mabhii, manzvanyira (particularly) arikuramba achiumbwa kuti ashandure ('are formed to evolve') mutauro weChiShona kuti usafe. Iko kusakwanisa kushanduka kwemutauro uchienderera mberi ('the failure of a language to evolve and adapt continuously'), kunoita kuti mutauro usakwana shandiswa zuva nezuva, kwekutaurirana, kunyora kana zvimwewo. Nekudaro mutauro wechiShona zvakare wakashanduka uye ndokutora mashoko matsva kubva kune mimwe mitauro yekune dzimwe nyika, neweChiBantu kuti usafe.[3][4][2]

MABHII ECHISHONA (majority)
A B BH CH D DH E F G H I J K M N N' O P R S S' T U V VH W Y Z
Bv Chw Dw Dy Gw Hw Kw Mb Nd N'w Pf Rw Sh s'kw

(skw)

Ts *Vw Vhw Zh
Bw

(Bhw)

Dz Mbw Ndw Pw *Ry Shw S'k

(sk)

Tsv Zhw
Dzv Mh Ng Sv S't

(*st)

Tsw Zv
Dzw Mv Ngw Sw Tw Zw
Mw Nh Ty
Nhw
Nj
Njw
Nw
Ny
Nyw
Nz
Nzv
Nzw

Chimwe chinhu chekurangarira ndechekuti, nekuda kwekuti Sitandadhi Shona yakasiyana nedzimwe mitauro yerudzi rweChishona mabhii anogona kusiyana. Mabhii echiKaranga anosiyana nemabhii echiNdau, uye mamwe anogona kunge akafanana nekuti vanhu vanotaura mutaro wacho wanenge wachigara pedyo nerimwe dzinza (geographically).[4][2]

Mutauro yevaNdau yakasiyana nemimwe mitauro yevamwe MaShona, izvi zvakadaro nechikonzero chemitauro yevanhu vechiNguni. Zivai kuti izvi hazvireve kuti Ndau mutauro wechiNguni, sezvo uchiri unonzwisisika nemimwe mitauro yeShona. Mutauri wechiNguni (Ndebele, Xhosa, Hlubi nezvimwewo) havakwanisi kunzwisisa mamwe mazwi eNdau kudarika mutauri wechiShona (Karanga, Korekore, Manyika nezvimwe).[2]

Zvivaramwana zveSitandadhi ShonaEdit

Varamwana (/ⱱɑːrɑːmwɑːnɑː/) kana Zvivaramwana muChishona zvinoreva kuti mavhaweri (Chirungu: vowels). Pazasi panoratidza tafura yezvivaramwana zveChishona.

ZVIVARAMWANA ZVESITANDADHI SHONA
BHII IPA SHOKO CHIRUNGU MUTSARA CHIRUNGU
A ɑː Amai mother Amai vangu vanondida. My mother loves me.
E ɛ Enda go Zvakaoma kukuona uchienda. It's hard to see you go.
I Ina four Ihora ina izvozvi. It's 4 right now. (or 'the fourth hour')
O Oma hard Akaoma musoro. He/she is hard headed.
U Udza tell Akavaudza hora risiro. He/she told them the wrong hour.

Zivai kuti mavaramwana eChiShona anotaurwa sezvaakanyorwa, kunyangwe kunge akanyorwa nerimwe varamwana, mataurirwo haachinji.

Zvinzvanyira zveSitandadhi ShonaEdit

Zvinzvanyira' ( /ʐiːnʐɑːnjiːrɑː/) zvinoreva kuti consonants' (makonzonendi) muChirungu. ChiShona chine mazinga mana eMabhii nekuti akanyorwa achishandisa chiLatin script (S'kiriputi yeChiRatini)[5]; zvinzvanyira zvimwe, zvitatu nezvina. Chinyorwa cheChiRatini hachinatsoratidza zvinzvanyira zvese mumitauro yeShona. Nekudaro muchikamu chino munowana mamwe maungira anotaurwa asi chinyorwa chakanyorwa hachiwanikwe, mienzaniso yemazwi ichapihwa.

Shona yakamboshandisa S'kiriputi yeChiArabhu.[6]

ChiArabhu S'kiriputi.Edit

Rangarirai kuti Shona haicha shandisi S'kiriputi yeChiarabhu, yaishandiswa kudhara uye zvaisava kwenguva yakareba.[6]

ChiRatini S'kiriputi.Edit

Mabhii echiRatini akagadziridzwa kuSitandadhi Shona anoratidzaka se zviri pazasi:

Mabhii eChiShona
A B BH CH D DH E F G H I J K M N N' O P R S S' T U V VH W Y Z

Tsananguro yemitauro.Edit

Sitandadhi Shona hayina C, L, X ne Q, nekuti inonyanya kuva mashoko echiZezuru ne mamwe mbijana echiKaranga. C, X uye Q mumitauro yeBantu inozivikanwa semabhii e Kudzvanya (ma-'clicks'), uye muSitandadhi Shona kudzvanya kunoonekera zvakareuruka muzvinzvanyira zvakaita se-'D'. Zvakadaro, rangarira kuti kunyangwe zvimwe zvinzvanyira izvi zvisipo muSitandadhi Shona zvirimo mumamwe mitauro yeShona, senge chiNdau, chiManyika uye chiKaranga. ChiKorekore uye ChiZezuru ndivo mitauro maviri echiShona asina zvinzvanyira zveKudzvanya.[2]

Pamusoro peizvo, Ndau ndiyo zvakare mutauro wechiShona une chinzvanyira 'L' ayo asingawanikwe mune mimwe mitauro mina (zvakakonzerwa nevaNguni). Izvi zvisinei hazvo hazvikanganisi kugona kwevamwe vaShona kunzwisisa chiNdau.[7][2]

Mabhii emimwe mitauro yeChishona achave akanyorwa pakasiyana.

Zvinzvanyirwa | MakonzonendiEdit

Shoko rekuti zvinzvanyira rino mirira mabhii anovaka mashoko, uye rinozivikwa muChirungu se-Makonzonendi (consonants).

ZVINZVANYIRA ZVIMWE (single consonants)
BHII IPA SHOKO CHIRUNGU MUTSARA CHIRUNGU
B Baba father Ndibaba wangu. It's my father.
CH Changu mine Ichi ndechangu. This is mine.
D Dota ash Akasvibiswa nemadota. He/she was dirtied by the ashes.
F Fara joy, happiness Mwana uyo anofara. That child is happy/joyous.
G Gore cloud, year Igore ripi? | Hona gore iro. What year is it? | Look at that cloud.
H Hora hour Ihora ripi izvozvi? What hour is it right now?
J Jecha sand Ndofarira kufamba mujecha. I like walking in the sand.
K Kupi where Urikuenda kupi? Where are you going?
M Moto fire Moto unokudziyisa kana kukupisa. Fire can burn you or warm you.
N Naya rain, raining Kunze kurikunaya. It's raining outside.
N' N'ombe cow Tinoda n'ombe paroora. We want cows for brideprice.
P Pika swear Unopika here? Do you swear?
R Rota dream Ndiudze zvawakarota. Tell me what you dreamt.
S Seka laugh Akanaka achiseka. He/she is pretty when laughing.
S' S'kwera

(Swera)

S'kwinywa

(swinywa)

Spend the day

Pinched

(dialect difference)

Ko zuro makas'kwera sei?

(Ko zuro makaswera sei?)

Ndas'kwinywa naThando.

(Ndaswinywa naThando).

So, how did you spend the day yesterday?

I was pinched by Thando.

T Temba believe, trust Unotemba naye? You trust/believe in him/her?
V Vanhu people VaShona Vanhu vechiBantu. Shona people are Bantu people.
W Wakai build Wakai musiye njodzi. Build and leave disaster.
Y Yeuka remember Zita rake rinonzi Yeuka. Her name is Remember (Yeuka).
Z Zana hundred Unogona kureva kusvika zana? Can you count to a hundred?

Zvinzvanyira ZviriEdit

Zvinzvanyira zviviri zvinosanganisa mabhii mairi kuti mamwe agadzirwe.

ZVINZVANYIRA ZVIVIRI (Double consonants)
BHII IPA SHOKO CHIRUNGU MUTSARA CHIRUNGU
BH Bhaiskopu

(Bhais'kopu)

Bioscope, movie Anofarira kuona bhaiskopu. He/she likes watching movies.
BV Bvunza ask Bvunza vanhu vanoziva nezvenhorondo yeMaShona. Ask people that know about Shona history.
BW Ibwe stone, brick Anogona kusika zvinhu neibwe. He/she can create things from stone.
CHW Wachwa washed Zvakawachwa nani? Who washed this?
DH Dhadha duck Handisati ndabodya dhadha. I have never eaten a duck.
*DW kudwa (kudiwa),

Tsvodwa

To be wanted,

kissed

Chinodwa naTafa.

Anofarira kutsvodwa.

It's wanted by Tafa.

He/she likes being kissed.

DY Dyara planting a seed Anodyara mbeu. He/she plants seeds.
DZ Dzidza learn Ndinogona kudzidza. I am good at learning.
GW Gwavha guava Magwavha anemhodzi. Guavas have seeds.
HW Hweva Venus, morning star Hweva izita rechindeya. Venus is the name for a planet.
KW Kwira clim Kwira gomo uyende. Climb the mountain and go.
MB Mbise brown Ndine ganda mbise rinotsvodwa nezuva. I have sunkissed brown skin.
MH Mhou cow Ndifarira nyama yemhou. I like cow meet.
MV Mvura water Mvura inonaka kana unenzara. Water tastes good when you're hungry.
MW Mwana child Mwana wekwedu iyeye! She's a child from ours!
*N'W Yan'wa

(Yamwa)

(dialect difference)

suckle, suck (milk) Mwana ariku yan'wa mukaka. The baby is sucking milk (breast milk).
ND Ndarama gold (mineral, colour) Ndarama iruvara rwakanaka. Gold is a beautiful colour.
NG Ngano folklore, fairytale, fantasy Ndinonyora zvinyorwa zvengano. I write fantasy books.
NH Nhema lies, black Anongoreva nhema. He/she only tells lies.
NJ Njuzu mermaid Ndakaona njuzu. I saw a mermaid.
NW Nwiwa watermelon Handifarire nwiwa. I don't like watermelon.
NY Nyeredzi star, stars Maziso ako anopenya senyeredzi. Your eyes sparkle like stars.
NZ Nzira road Kwira nenzira iyi. Go/climb with this road.
PF Pfupfu, pfumbi grey (colour) Vhudzi rake iruvara pfupfu. His/her hair is grey.
PW Pwanya (pwanhya) break Akapwanya girazi. He/she broke the glass.
RW Rwiyo song Rwiyo rwaunofarira runonzi chii? What is your favourite song?
SH Shoko word Shoko iri rinorevei? What does this word mean?
*S'K Mas'kati (masikati)

Bhais'kopo

afternoon

Bioscope

Ndokuona mas'kati.

Ndanga ndichiona bhais'kopo.

I'll see you in the afternoon.

I was watching a bioscope.

*S'T S'tereki a lot Unotaurisa stereki. You talk too much.
SV Svondo (Sondo) Sunday, Week Isvondo ripi rinori? What week is this?
SW Swera spend the day Waswera sei? How was your day?
TS Tsaranziyo lyrics Anonyora rutsaranziyo rwake. He/she writes his lyrics.
TW Twasanuka relax, fix seating position Twasanuka makumbo ugare mushe. Relax your legs and sit in a better position.
TY Tyiswa be scared Akatyiswa naJabu. He/she was scared by Jabu.
VH Vheneka brighten up Mwenje rinovheneka mumba The light bulb brightens the house.
*VW Revwa (n. reviwa) be said, be counted Zvaka revwa neShami. It was said/counted by Shami
ZH Zhizha summer Zita rake ndiZhizha. Her name is Summer.
ZV Zvinhu things Zvinhu zvaani izvi? Whose things are these?
ZW Izwi voice, word Ndanzwa izwi rako. I heard your voice.

Zvinzvanyira zvitatu.Edit

Zvinzvanyira zvitatu zvinosanganisa mabhii matatu kana kuwedzera pamusoro pezvinzvanyira zviviri kuti mamwe agidzirwe.

ZVINZVANYIRA ZVITATU (Tripple Consonants)
BHII IPA SHONA CHIRUNGU MUTSARA CHIRUNGU
DZV Dzvanya squash, squesh Zhou inogona kudzvanya gonzo. An elephant can squash a rat.
DZW Udzwa be told Wakaudzwa nani? Who told you?
MBW Imbwa dog Imbwa yaani iyo? Whose dog is that?
NDW Pindwa be entered Mumba makapindwa tisipo. The house was entered when we weren't here.
NGW Ngwara smart Mukomana wako akangwara. Your boyfriend is smart.
NHW Donhwe droplet Atoteswa nemadonhwe emvura. He/she was drenched by rain droplets.
NJW Chinjwa be changed Akachinjwa nekuda kwemunyama. He/she was changed due tp misfortune.
NYW Menywa Zvamenywa naSifo. It was cracked open by Sifo.
NZV Nzvenga avoid Arikunzvenga mapurisa. He/she is avoiding the police.
NZW Nzwara nail, nails Une nzwara dzakareba. You have long nails.
SHW Ishwa flying termite Unodya ishwa here? Do you eat flying termites.
*S'KW Mus'kwe,

S'kwinywa

Tail,

be itchy

Chine muskwe refu.

Ndiri kus'kwinywa.

It has a long tail.

I am itchy.

TSV Tsvuku red Ruvara tsvuku huri pamureza weZimbabwe. The colour red is on the Zimbabwean flag.
TSW Mutswa be awakened Asi mangamusingade kumutswa? Did you not want to be woken up?
*VHW Muvhwa be moved Zvinhu zvakamuvhwa naTaona. The things were moved by Taona.
ZHW Hozhwa snail Vanhu vechiFurenji vanodya hozhwa. French people eat snails.

Mitauro yeBantuEdit

  • MaZulu vanoti intshonalanga (n. The west. Lit. where the sun sets. Shona + Ilanga).

MarefurenziEdit

  1. Stevick, Earl W. Language, vol. 38, no. 1, 1962, pp. 99–101. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/411196. Yakatariswa: 4 Chivabvu 2021.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Isaac Mhute, 2016, 'Standardisation a Considerable Force behind Language Death: A case of Shona',Journal of Education and Practice. ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.7, No.9, 2016
  3. Makoni, Sinfree, et al. “The Use of ‘Indigenous’ and Urban Vernaculars in Zimbabwe.” Language in Society, vol. 36, no. 1, 2007, pp. 25–49. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4169560. Yakatariswa: 10 Chivabvu 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Shizha, Edward. (2012). Reclaiming and Re-visioning Indigenous Voices: The Case of the Language of Instruction in Science Education in Zimbabwean Primary Schools. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal. 1. 785 - 793. 10.20533/licej.2040.2589.2012.0116.
  5. Scriptsource, n.d, 'Shona',writing systems for this language. Yakatariswa: 10 Chivabvu 2021
  6. 6.0 6.1 owlapps, n.d, 'Arabic script',Former Use: Africa; Shona Zimbabwe Yakatariswa: 5 Chikumi 2021
  7. MacGonagle, Elizabeth. “Living with a Tyrant: Ndau Memories and Identities in the Shadow of Ngungunyana.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 41, no. 1, 2008, pp. 29–53. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40282455. Yakatariswa 10 Chivabvu 2021.