Mwaka

(Redirected from Mwaka yepaNyika)

Kuona mamwe mashandisirwo eshoko tarisai: Mwaka (tsauranisa chirevo)

Four seasons.jpg

Mwaka (Nge. season) kana kati urupande (kana rugohwaniso) rwe gore zvichienderera ne shanduko ye hwewa, ruambanhundu (ikoloji), uye numeri ye maawa murhijoni. PaRinopasi, mwaka igumiko (kana mhedzisiro) ye botera re Rinopasi pakutenderedza Zuva ne Rinopasi patiruti ye ruakiso (axial tilt) nerukamukano we mutsendo uri ekliputiki (ecliptic). Mu-tempereti uye marhijoni ari polari (polar), mwaka inotaridzwa nekushanduka kwekusimba kwechiedza chezuva chinosvika paRinopasi, misiyano inogona kuita kuti mhuka dzipinde muhibhanesheni (hibernation) muchando kana kuti dzitame, uye zvirimwa zvisamera. Tsika dzakasiyana-siyana dzinotsanangura huwandu nemasikirwo emwaka zvichienderana nekusiyana kwematunhu, uye nekudaro kune akati wandei echimanjemanje uye enhoroondo tsika dzine huwandu hwe mwaka hunosiyana.

Mburungwagama rekuMaodzanyemba inowana chiedza chezuva chakanyanya kunanga muna Chivabvu, Chikumi, na Chikunguru, sezvo nyika yakatarisana ne Zuva. Zvimwe chetezvo ndezvechokwadi nezveMburungwagama rekuChamhembe munaMbudzi, Zvita, uye Ndira. Kurereka kwe Rinopasi pasi kunoita kuti Zuva rive pamusoro mudenga mumwedzi ye zhizha, izvo zvinowedzera kuyerera kwezuva. Nekudaro, nekuda kwekunonoka kwemwaka, Chikumi, Chikunguru, na Nyamavhuvhu ndiyo mwedzi inodziya zvakanyanya muMburungwagama rekuMaodzanyemba nepo Zvita, Ndira, na Kukadzi ndiyo mwedzi inodziya zvakanyanya muMburungwagama rokuChamhembe.

Mu-tempereti uye kuuzasi-polari (sub-polar), mwaka mina zvichienderana nekarenda ya Gregori inowanzo zivikanwa: chirimo, chirimo, matsutso (kana mapehwe), uye chando. Nyanzvi dze Vaambanhanga (vaikolojisti) dzinowanzoshandisa modhi yemwaka mitanhatu yenzvimbo dzakadzikama dzemamiriro ekunze ayo asina kusungirirwa kune chero akatarwa mazuva ekarenda: prevernal, vernal, estival, serotinal, autumnal, uye hibernal. Nharaunda dzakawanda dzinopisa dzine mwaka miviri: maenza (kana zienza), monzuni (nge. monsoon), kana kuti uyezve mhari. Vamwe vane mwaka wechitatu unotonhorera, wakapfava, kana kuti harimatani (harmattan). "Mwaka" inogonawo kutaurwa nenguva yezviitiko zvakakosha zvezvakatipoteredza zvakadai semwaka we maharikeni, mwaka we matonadho, uye mwaka we moto-ye-musango. Mimwe mienzaniso yekukosha kwenhoroondo ndeyemwaka weIjipita yekare-mafashamo, kukura, uye mvura shoma-iyo zvakambotsanangurwa nemafashamo egore negore eNairi muIjipita.

Mwaka kazhinji inobata zvakakosha kumasangano ezvekurima, ane hupenyu hunotenderera pakudyara nekukohwa nguva, uye shanduko yemwaka inowanzopindwa netsika. Tsanangudzo yemwaka ndeye tsika zvakare. MuIndiya, kubva kare kusvika nhasi, mwaka mitanhatu kana Ritu yakavakirwa kuChamhembe cheEzhiya echitendero kana tsika makarenda anozivikanwa uye anozivikanwa nezvinangwa zvakaita sekurima nekutengeserana.

Horokodzwa ye MwakaEdit

ZhizhaEdit

Zhizha kana zhezha (zummer) ndiwo mwaka we gore unowanzo pisa.

MaenzaEdit

Maenza kana Zienza (rainy season) kureva nguva yokunaya.

NhimuramwakaEdit

Nhimuramwaka (summer-end rain) kureva kunaya kunoitika pakupera kwe mwaka wa zhizha.

ChandoEdit

Chando (winter) kana Chinyamuchinga kuChindau zvinoreva mwaka wegore unotonhora.

MhariEdit

Mhari (dryness, arid region)

MatsutsoEdit

Matsutso, Masutso kana Mapehwe kuChikorekore.

ChirimoEdit

Chirimo kana ruswiswi (spring)

Tsanangudzo ye mashokoEdit

AkisoEdit

Akiso (axis) uyu mutsetse uri pakati pechiumbwa unoti zviri kumativi ose emutsetse iwoyu zvinenge zvakafanana nekuenzanza huremu nekuumbwa kwazvo. Takatarisana neRinopasi, akiso iyi ndiyo monerapo apo panoziririka Rinopasi kamwe pamusi mumwe - izvi zvinokonzera kubuda nokudoka kwezuva. Akiso iyi mutsetse unobatananidza Phoula[1] ye Maodzanyemba (North pole) ne Phoula ye Chamhembe (South pole). Rinopasi inonyerereka kana kumonereka paakiso iyoyi kamwechete pamaawa 24.

DenderendeEdit

Denderende (ellipse) - iri zita rinoreva munyonga uri pamutsendo, unoonekwa panochekwa charaka zvichitevedza mutsendo nenzira inopa munyonga wakavharwa kwese (closed curve). Izvi zvinoreva kuti mutsendo wacho unocheka nenzira yokuti chiumbwa chinosara pachekwa chine munyonga chete pasina mutsetse wakati twasa; mutsendo haucheke hwaro kana chisuvi chiri pacharaka. Denderende harisi denderedzwa asi rinoda kuita sedenderedzwa rine kuumbwa kwezai.

BotereroEdit

Boterero (orbit) - iri zita rinoreva nzira inofambwa nayo neRinopasi apo inenge ichipoterera zuva kamwe pagore kana kuti pamisi 365. Boterekwa reRinopasi rine kuumbwa kwakaita denderende. Iri zita rinoshandiswawo kutsanangudza nzira dzinofambwa nedzimwe zvindeya padzinopoterera zuva.

MutsendoEdit

Mutsendo (plane, flat area) izwi rinoreva uso hwakatichechetere kunge pamusoro pemvura. Mutsendo unogonga kunge wakamiswa wakaita mutwi kana kurara kuti sandarara kana kurereka neipi zvayo gonyo. Mutsendo uso hune utandu huviri (2-dimensions)- hwasha nehurefu; mutsendo hauna hudzamu. Rinopasi rinodendera (revolves) iri pamutsendo wedenderende (elliptical plane) unocheka nepakati pezuva.

MuenzanisiEdit

Muenzanisi (equator) mutsetse unopangidza panosangana uso hweurungano nemutsendo une munzi wehuremu uye wakarurama neakiso yeurungano yacho. Kureva kuti mutsendo uyu wakaita mutwi neaksio uye kuti wakatakura munzi wehuremu (centre of mass) yeurungano yacho. Iri zita rinoshandiswazve pakutsangudza kuumbwa kweRinopasi. Muenzanisi une nhambwe dzakaenzana kubva kuPhoula ye Maodzanyemba ne Phoula ye Chamhembe panzvimbo dzose.

Gonga reMaodzanyemba ndipo papoyindi panoburikira akiso yekuzeya yeRinopasi, kuri kuMaodzanyemba kweRinopasi, riri divi rakapesana nePhoula ye Chamhembe. Kana takatarisa kuMabvazuva, Gonga reMaodzanyemba rinenge riri kuruboshwe.

Gonga reChamhembe ndipo papoyindi panoburikira akiso yekuzeya yeRinopasi, kuri kuChamhembe kweRinopasi. Kana takatarisa kuMabvazuva, Gonga reChamhembe rinenge riri kurudyi.

MbariroEdit

Mbariro (Taranyika), (latitude) mitsetse inobatanidza nzvimbo dzine nhambwe yegonyo yakaenzana kana gonyo richipimwa kubva pauenzanisi zvichienda kuMaodzanyemba kana kuChamhembe kwe muenzanisi. Mbariro inoverengwa ichibva pamuenzanisi uyo unopiwa nhamba 0o. Numeri ye mbariro inokwira zvichienda kuphoula ye Maondzanyemba - nhamba dzichipiwa vara (+), kudzamara dzasvika pa +90o. Nhamba yelatitude inodzika zvichenda kuphoula ye chamhembe, nhamba dzichipiwa vara (-), kudzamara dzasvika pa -90o. Izvi zvinoreva kuti mbariro 20o iri kuMaodzanyemba kwe muenzanisi; mbariro-30o kana kuti 30oS iri kuChamhembe kwe muenzanisi. Mepu inotaridza mitsetse ye mbariro ichibva kamadokero kuenda kumabvazuva.

Mutambariko (mtambariko)Edit

Mitambariko (Taranyika), (longitude) mitsetse inobatanidza nzvimbo dzine nhambwe yegonyo yakaenzana kana gonyo richipimwa kubva paPrime (Greenwich) zvichienda kuMabvazuva kana kuMadokero ePrime Meridian. Mtambariko inoverengwa ichibva paPrime Meridian iyo inopiwa nhamba 0o. Nhamba ye mtambariko inokwira zvichienda kuMabvazuva - nhamba dzichipiwa vara (+), kudzamara dzasvika pa +180o. Nhamba ye mtambariko inodzika zvichenda kuMadokero, nhamba dzichipiwa vara (-), kudzamara dzasvika pa -180o. Izvi zvinoreva kuti longitude +20o iri kuMabvazuva kwePrime Meridian; longitude -30o iri kuMadokero kwePrime Meridian.

DenderaEdit

Dendera (to revolve) izwi rinoreva kupoterera kunoita Rinopasi ichitendera zuva. Dendera rinotanga nekuperera panzvimbo imwechete - ipapo paratangira ndipo parinogumira kuverengwa. Rinopasi inoita dendera kamwe (1) pamazuva 365 kana kuti pagore.

Kuzeya ne kudendera kwe RinopasiEdit

KuzeyaEdit

Kuzeya (swinging) kwe Rinopasi rinoreva kuziririka kunoita nyika paakiso inobatanidza Phoula ye maodzanyemba ne Phoula ye chamhembe. Nyika inoita monerapo ichiziririka paakiso iyoyi. Kana tichitarisa Phoula ye maodzanyemba kubva muchadenga nyika inoratidzika ichiziririka kuenda nerudzivo rwunopesana newachi - counter-clockwise. Kana kuri kuPhoula ye chamhembe inotaridzika ichitenderera nerudzivo rwunotevedza wachi - clockwise. Kuziririka kunoita nyika ndiko kunoita kuti kuve neusiku nemasikati; nyika inoziririka kamwe (1) panguva inoita 24 mahawa. Pane ipi zvayo nguva: hafu yenyika inenge yakataira zuva iri muchiedza ari masikati; imwe hafu inenge iri murima kudivi risiri kuwana mirazvo yezuva. Saka panyika panogara paine denderedzwa rinotara muganhu pakati perima nechiedza unonzi Denderedzwa reChiedza - Circle of Illumination.

DenderaEdit

Dendera rinoreva kupoterera kunoita Rinopasi ichitendera zuva. Rinopasi inoita dendera kamwe (1) pamisi 365,25. Dendera rinotanga nekuperera panzvimbo imwechete - ipapo paratangira ndipo parinogumira kuverengwa - nyika ichizotangazve kutenderera nenzira iyoyo imwechete. Nzira inotenderera nayo nyika tichaidana kuti boterekwa; nzira iyi ine kuumbwa kwedenderende kwete denderedzwa. Nokuda kwekuti boterekwa iri idenderende, nhambwe iri pakati penyika nezuva inosiyana mukufamba kwegore - asi izvi sandizvo zvinokonzera mwaka yepanyika.

Kutsveyama kwe akiso ye RinopasiEdit

Sokutaurwa kwaitwa, Rinopasi rinodendera (revolves) riri pamutsendo wedenderende (elliptical plane) unochekana neboterekwa rinofamba ne Rinopasi kamwe pagore. Panguva imwe chete, Rinopasi inoita monerapo ichiziririka paakiso inobatanidza Phoula ye Maondzanyemba ne Chamhembe. Akiso ye Rinopasi haina kururama pamutsendo wedenderende asi yakatsveyama negonyo re 23.5o. gonyo riri pakati pemutsendo denderende ne akiso ye Rinopasi haichinje; Akiso inoramba yakanongedza divi rimwe uye yakatsveyama negonyo rimwe re 23.5o. Asi chinoshanduka kuti idivi ripi reakiso riri pedyo nezuva. Divi riri pedyo nezuva rinowana mirazvo yakanyanya - iri divi ndiro rinenge riri mumwaka wekupisa, zhizha, divi riri kure rinenge riri muChando.

Mazuva (misi) ekurangariraEdit

ZuvaragodzaEdit

Mazuva eZuvaragodza (solstice) anoitika Chikumi 20-21 ne Zvita 20-21.

  • Pamazuva Chikumi 20-21 Rinopasi inenge iri panzvimbo muboterekwa yokuti Phoula ye maodzanyemba inenge yakanongedza kuzuva yakatsveyamira kuzuva ne 23.5o. Denderedzwa rechiedza rinenge riri panzvimbo yokuti Phoula ye Maondzanyemba haipinde murima zvokuti Phoula ye maodzanyemba inowana 24 maawa echiedza. Denderedzwa re Chiedza rinenge rakaita muganhu pambariro 66.5oN panova ndipo panotangira Denderedzwa re Akitiki (arctic cirle). Panguva imwechete, Phoula ye Chamhembe inenge yakanongedza kwakapesana nezuva, denderedzwa rechiedza rinenge riri panzvimbo yokuti Phoula ye Chamhembe inoramba iri murima. Phoula ye Chamhembe inowana 24 maawa erima.

Pamazuva aya, nzvimbo dzose dziri kuMaodzanyemba e muenzanisi dzinowana chiedza kwemaAwa anodarika 12; nzvimbo dzose dziri kuChamhembe kwe muenzanisi dzinowana chiedza chiri kwemahawa ari pasi pe 12. Hafu yekuMaodzanyemba inenge iri mumwaka weZhizha, hafu yekuChamhembe inenge iri mumwaka wechando.

  • Pamazuva Zvita 20-21 Rinopasi inenge iri panzvimbo muboterekwa yokuti phoula ye chamhembe inenge yakanongedza kuzuva yakatsveyamira kuzuva ne 23.5o. Denderedzwa rechiedza rinenge riri panzvimbo yokuti Poula ye chamhembe haipinde murima zvokuti phoula ye chamhembe inowana 24 maawa echiedza. Denderedzwa re Chiedza rinenge rakaita muganhu pa mbariro 66.5oS panova ndipo panotangira Denderedzwa re Andakitika (Antarctic Circle). Panguva imwechete, North pole inenge yakanongedza kwakapesana nezuva, denderedzwa rechiedza rinenge riri panzvimbo yokuti North pole inoramba iri murima. Nouth pole inowana 24 maawa erima.

Pamazuva aya, nzvimbo dzose dziri kuChamhembe kwe muenzanisi dzinowana chiedza kwemaawa anodarika 12; nzvimbo dzose dziri kuMaodzanyemba kwe muenzanisi dzinowana chiedza chiri kwemahawa ari pasi pe 12. Hafu yekuChamhembe inenge iri mumwaka weZhizha, hafu yekuMaodzanyemba inenge iri mumwaka wechando.

Husiku HwakaenzanaEdit

Mazuva eHusiku Hwakaenzana (equinox) anoitika March 20-21 neSeptember 20-21. Pamazuva aya Denderedzwa reChiedza rinocheka Gonga reChamhembe neGonga reMaodzanyemba - mativi ose eakiso anenge ari nhambwe dzakafanana kubva kuzuva - hapana divi rinenge riri pedyo nezuva kudarika rimwe. Zvakare hapana divi reakiso rinenge rakanongedza kune zuva. Pamazuva aya nzvimbo dzose dziri panyika dzinowana husiku hwakaenzana, hwakareba 12 maawa - saka mazuva aya achinzi Husiku Hwakaenzana.

Kubva pana Kurume 20-21, nguva yechiedza inoenda ichireba kuhafu yekuMaodzanyemba - kutanga kwenguva yeChirimo kunzvimbo dziri kuMaodzanyemba kwe Muenzanisi. Kunzvimbo dziri kuChamhembe, nguva yechiedza inenge ichiderera, kutanga kwenguva ye Matsutso kunzvimbo idzi. Pakutsutsa.

Kubva pana Sep 20-21, nguva yechiedza inoenda ichiderera kuhafu yekuMaodzanyemba - iyi inguva yemwaka weMatsutso kunzvimbo dziri kuMaodzanyemba kwe Muenzanisi. Kunzvimbo dziri kuChamhembe, nguva yechiedza inenge ichireba, nguva yemwaka weChirimo kunzvimbo idzi.

Mbariro ne Mtambariko muChishonaEdit

  • Mbariro dzeTaranyika. Taona kuti mwaka yepanyika inosiyana zvichienderana nekusiyana kwelatitude; nokudaro pfungwa iri kuti tsambamba idzi dzidanwe kunzi Mbariro dzeTaranyika mwaka muChishona. Mwaka inenge iri kulatitude dzekuMaodzanyemba inopesana nemwaka ye mbariro dzekuChamhembe. Nzvimbo dziri mumabriro dze Madondazuva (Tropics) munova mune nyika ye Zimbabwe, mwaka haiverengwe kusvika pamwaka mina. Izvi zvinokonzerwa nechiitiko chokunge zuva richiwanikwa nemurazvo une simba panguva zhinji dzegore.

Nzvimbo dziri kunze kwe mbariro ye Madondazuva dzinoverenga mwaka mina inoonekwa zvakati tsvikiti. Mwaka iyi ndiyo chando; chirimo, zhizha, matsutso.

  • Mutambariko weTaranyika. Nguva yezuva inosiyana zvichienderana ne mtambariko, saka zvakafanira kuti mtambariko inzi mtambariko we taranyika. Nzvimbo dzakasiyana dzine nguva dzakasiyana zvichienderana memtambariko yenzvimbo yacho. Kune mipanda yenguva (time-zones) yakarongeka ichitevedza rudzivo Mabvazuva-Madokero yakatarwa pamitemo yenguva Pasirose. Nguva idzi hadzizoteveri mtambariko kuti gedye-gedye nokuda kwekusiyana kwemitemo ye nyika dze Pasirose panhau yeMipanda yenguva.

Tamboona kuti mtambariko inoverengwa iri 0-180oE tichienda kuMabvazuva uye 0-180oW tichienda kuMadokero. Zvinoreva kuti gonyo relongitude rinohwerengedzwa kusvika pa360o. Taona zvakare kuti nyika inoziririka kutenderera kamwe paawa 24h - mahawa 24h anoenderana ne 360o. Panofambwa 15o yoga-yoga nguva inochinja neawa imwe (1h).

Nyika ye Zimbabwe iri murumana rwehunhungo (longitude) +30oE. Pose panochinja muyeranhamo ne 15o, nguva inochinja nehawa rimwe (1h). Nokudaro Zimbabwe inopiwa nguva yakawedzerwa 2h (maawa 2) zvichienzaniswa nenguva iri paPrime Meridian. Somuenzaniso kana nguva iri paPrime Meridian iri pa 06:00hrs, nguva ye Zimbabwe inenge iri pa 08:00hrs. Nguva iri paPrime Meridian inonzi Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Nokumwe kutaura nguva ye Zimbabwe inodanwa ichinzi GMT + 2hrs.

  • Tariro ndeyekuti mifananidzo ivepo pachidzidzo chino kubatsira kunzwisisa zviri kutsanangurwa.

Zvimwe zvinyorwaEdit

Mamwe mashoko ashandiswaEdit

Mazwi eBantuEdit

  • VaMambwe vanoti mwaka (year, season, period) kureva gore, mwaka kana chinguva.
  • VaGungu vanoti mwaka (year, age) kureva gore.
  • VaKaonde vanoti mwela (season) kureva mwaka.
  • VaTonga vanoti ciindi (season, time, long ago, opportunity).

Mabviro eruzivoEdit

  1. "ipholi"