Vajudha

Vajudha (muChihebheru: יְהוּדִים, Yehudim) kana Vayehudha rudzi rwevanhu vane madzitateguru akabva kunyika ye Isiraeri / Yisiraeri vari vanhu vakazvarwa nevanakomana gumi nevaviri vaYakobho (kana Jakove uye Jakobho). Nhoroondo yerudzi urwu inotevedza madzibaba avo ane mazita akanyorwa muBhaibheri vanoti: Abhurahama; Isaka; na Yakobho. Abhurahama na Sara vakazvara mwanakomana anonzi Isaka uyo akazvarwa mumakore ekunge vose vakwegura. Uku kwakanga kuri kuzadziswa kwechivimbiso chaMwari pavakataura naAbhurahama vachiti uchava nemwanakomana kuburikidza nomudzimai wako Sara. Mwari vakaitawo zvimwe zvitsidzo kuna Abhurahama zvinosanganisira: kuti huwandu hwevana vake huchawanda sejecha riri pamhenderedzo yegungwa; kuti Mwari vachapa nyika yeKenani kuna Abhurahama nevana vake vaizotevera shure kwake; kuti Mwari vacharopafadza vana vaAbhurahama zita ravo rikaita mukurumbira; kuti avo vanoropafadza vana vechipikirwa vaAbhurahama navowo vacharopafadzwa; kuti avo vanotuka vana vaAbhurahama navowo vachatukwa.

Vamwe vanoti Juta/Vajuta uye Majuta pamwe ndipo panobva zita uye zita remhuri rekuti: Majuta

Nhoroondo ya YakobhoEdit

Isaka akaroora Ribheka (kana Rabheka), vakazvara mapatya, mukuru ainzi Esau (kana Isawu) mudiki achinzi Yakobho. Uyu mukomana mudiki ndiye akaenda pamberi pababa vake nounyegeri akakwanisa kuti baba vamupe ropafadzo dzedangwe dzaifanirwa kunge dzakagadzwa pamukoma wake Esau. Mushure mokunge aba maropafadzo sezvizvi, Yakobho akatiza pamusha akanogara mumusha wemadziSekuru ake hanzvadzi dzaAmai vake. Ikoko Yakobho akanoshandira Sekuru vake Rabhani (Laban) zvichitevedza chivimbiso chekuti Yakobho aizopihwa mukunda wavo Rakeri (kana Racheri) kuti ave mukadzi wake. Pamusi wekuti chitsidzo chizadziswe, Rabhani akapinza mukunda mukuru Rea (Leah) mumba maYakobho, Rea akava ndiye mukadzi wekutanga waYakobho. Mushure mezvo Yakobho anonopopotedzana naRabhani, vakazoguma vatenderana kuti Yakobho ashande mamwe makore masere kuti apihwe Rakeri somukadzi wechipiri. Kwapera makore mazhinji Yakobho akadzokera kumusha kwake kuKenani mushure mokunge audzwa naMwari kuti achidzokera kwake. Pakuenda Yakobho akanoenda nevarongo vaviri vaiva varandakadzi vemadzimai ake Rea na Rakeri. Rea na Rakeri vakapa Yakobho varongo ava kuti vagozvarira Yakobho vana. Yakobho akava baba wevanakomana gumi nevaviri.

Yakobho vanakomana vake vakayambukira kuIjipita vachitsvaga chokudya mumwaka wenzara. KuIjipita vanoyamurwa naYosefa (kana Josefa) mwanakomana waYokobho uyo akanga atengeswa nevakoma vake muhuranda. Panguva iyoyo Yosefa akanga otonga segurukota reIjipita anorayira vakoma vake kuti vanounza baba vake nemhuri yose - mambo weIjipita anovagamuchira zvakanaka fani achivapa dunhu reGoshen kuti vagareko nezvipfuwo zvavo. Yosefa nevakoma vake vanofa vachisiya mhuri dzavo dzichigara muIjipita. Kwapera makore mazhinji, kunouya mumwe mambo akanga asingazive utongi hwaJoseph uye chirangano chaivepo nerudzi rwemaJudha. Mambo aitya kuti vana vaIsiraeri vakanga vawanda zvokuti muhondo aizogona kukurirwa kana maJudha vakabatana nevavengi vake. Saka mambo anoranga nemachinda ake kuti vabate maJudha kuvaita varanda vachikanya zvidhinha nokuita mamwe mabasa amambo Farao. Panguva iyoyi vana vaIsiraeri vanochema kuna Mwari, ivo Jehovha vachibva vamutsa Mhoze (kana Mhozesi, Mosesi) kuti atungamire rudzi rwaIsiraeri kubva muIjipita kuenda kunyika yechipikirwa ye Kenani. Urwu ndirwo rudzi rwakatungamirwa naMhoze kubuda muIjipita rwudzi urwu rwakapiwa Mitemo gumi yaMwari iyo yaidzidziswa naMhoze apo akabva kunosangana naMwari pagomo reSinai.

Mharadzirwa ye maJudhaEdit

Kune maJudah achiriko anogara munyika ye Isiraeri inova nzvimbo yavanokoshesa senyika yechipikirwa chakaitwa pakati paMwari namadzibaba avo. MaJudah akawanda vakapararira Pasirose vaine hugari hwakawanda munyika dzinoti: Mubatanidzwa weMavuso eAmerika; Furanzi; Bhuritani; Rhashiya, Ajentina; Bhuraziri nedzimwewo nyika. Pachinyorwa chino mazwi anoti mharadzirwa ye maJudha (Dhiaspora ye Majudha) ari kureva vanhu vose veRudzi rwaIsiraeri vanogara mune dzimwe nyika dzisiri Isiraeri. Kuno kuAfurika maJudha vane hugari hwakawanda kunyanya muAfurika Chamhembe; hugari hwavo hunoda kusvika 71,100 munyika iyi. MuAfurika Chamhembe maJudah vakauya panguva yekupambwa kwenyika iyi, vamwe vachizouya munguva yohutongi hwevachena. Kune maJudha ari muAfurika Chamhembe akabva kuRhashiya uye kunyika dziri kumavirira kweRhashiya. Nyika idzi dzinosanganisira Rituaniya; Porandi; Estoniya ne Rativhiya.

  • Mugore 722 PK mawuto amambo weAsiriya akarwisa Isiraeri akaikurira - nyika yamambo akakurirwa yaiva kumaodzanyemba weIsrael yatinoziva nhasi - Umambo hwe kuMaodzanyemba. Mushure mezvi marudzi gumi vaigara munyika yamambo weIsrael vanodzingwa kubva munyika mavo, apo mambo weAsiriya anovamwararidza mumatunhu enyika yake.
  • Mumakore 597 na 586 PK, Nebhukadhinezari mambo we Bhabhironi anorwisa Judheya / Yudheya achibva aikurira. Mushure mezvo Nebhukadhinezari anodzinga vanhu veJudheya achinovagarisa muhutapwa kuBhabhironi. Vari kuBhabhironi maJudha vanotenderwa kugara mumana mamwe nerudzi rwavo vasina kumwararidzwa.
  • Mushure memakore makumi masere muhutapwa hwe Bhabhironi, Koreshi mambo wePerisiya anotendera vanhu vakabva Judheya kuti vadzokere kunyika kwavo. Vakadzokerera panguva iyoyi vanosanganisira Ezira na Nehemiya. Asi kune vamwe maJudha vasina kudzokera kumusha, ava vakasarudza kuramba vari muBhabhironi makare.
  • Munguva iyo nyika yeIsiraeri yakanga iri pasi pehutongi hwemadzimambo ePerisiya ne Vugiriki / Girisi, maJudha vakanga vachitenderwa kutevedza tsika dzemadzibaba avo, uye vachirarama zvinoenderana nemitemo yechinamato chavo. Zvinonzi vamwe vavo katendeukira kune zvimwe zvinamato; vamwe vakatanga kusanganisa tsika yokunamata Yahweh nokunamata vamwe vamwari. Asi chikamu chihombe ndicho cheavo vakaramba vachinamata netsika dzechiJudha vachitevedza zvinyorwa zveTorah.
  • Mugore 63 PK Judheya yakapambwa ikava nyika yaitongwa nemakurukota eVaroma. Vatongi veChiRoma vakanga vaine hutsinye samare, vaitora mari zhinji kubva kumaJudha yavairipiswa semitero. Mugore 70 MK vagari veJudheya vakapanduka vakamutsa chimurenga chekuda kusvisunungura kubva pahutapwa hwevatongi veChiRoma. Chimurenga ichi chakakundika, mawuto emaJudha vakaurawa, vamwe vakatizira kumakomo kwavaigara mugona reMasadha. Varoma vakakomba gona reMasada kwemakore maviri, vanhu vakapoteramo vakange vave kuziya nenzara mugore 73 MK. Asi kunonzi vanhu vakahwanda kuMasada vakasarudza kuzviuraya pane kuzvipira kuti vaurawe neVaroma. Varoma vakaparadza Jerusalem panguva iyoyi, vakatora Judea seimwe yematunhu aiva pasi pamambo weVaroma.
  • Saka mushure megore 73 MK, nhoroondo yemaJudha inenga yotaurwa ichionesa ruzhinji rwavo vapararira munyika dzeAfurika, Ezhiya, uye Yuropu.

Vanhu / WanhuEdit

VaMajudha vanowanikwa mumaziwumbe epasirose akanyogwa pazasi (muna 2018):

Ziwumbe Vajudha (estimeti) Muzana we vagari vese
Amerika 6,469,800 0.64
. 6,593,000 0.15
Yuropu 1.359.100 0.17
Oshianiya 121,000 0.3
Afurika 73.600 0.006
Pasirose 14,606,700

Nyika ne nyikaEdit

Muna 2018 paive neMajudha 14.6 miriyoni pasirose. Izvi zvakaenzana ne0.19 muzana yehuwandu hwevanhu pasirose. Vazhinji vari muIsiraeri neAmerika

Somugumisiro wesangano rokutama, kupararira kwevaJudha muzana remakore rechi20 kwakachinja zvikuru. Muna 1990 Mubatanidzwa we Sovhiyeti yakanga ichiri neVajudha vakawanda. Mushure mekupera kwemubatanidzwa vazhinji vakasiya zvakanyanya kuIsrael neAmerika uye kune vashoma nhamba muJerumani zvakare.

Mastatistiki enyika ne nyika muna2018 aive sezvinotevera.

Nyika Numeri ye Majudha Muzana we Majudha ese Muzana we huwandu Tsanangurwa
Amerika 6.925.475 47.7 1.8
Isiraeri 6,697,000 46.2 74.8 pamwe ne Mabvazuva e Jerusarema, nzvimbo dziri ku madokero eJodhani ne Golan Heights
Faranzi 453,000 3,1 0.7
Kanadha 390,500 2.7 1,1
Bhuritani 290,000 2.0 0.4
Ajendina 180,300 1,2 0.4
Rhashiya 172,000 1,2 0.1
Jerumani 116,000 0.8 0.1 estimati: 150,000
Ostireriya 113,400 0.8 0.5
Bhuraziri 93.200 0.6 0,0
Afurika Chamhembe 69,000 0.5 0.1
Yukuraniya 50,000 0.3 0.2
Hungariya 47,400 0.3 0.5
Mehiko (Meksiko) 40,000 0.3 0,0
Netherlends 29,900 0.2 0.2
Bherujyamu 29,500 0.2 0.3
Itari 29,800 0.2 0,0
Switsarandi 18,800 0.1 0.2 official: 16,500
Turuki 21,000 0.1 0,0
Urugwayi 17,000 0.1 0.5
Chire 18,300 0.1 0.1
Swidheni 15,000 0.1 0.2
Bherarusi 10,400 0.1 0.1
Rhomaniya 9,300 0.1 0,0
Ostiriya 9,000 0.1 0.1 estimeti inosvika ku 15,000
Irani 9,000 0.1 0,0
Chayina 2,600 0,0 0,0 pamwe ne Hongkong uye Macau
Moroko 2,300 0,0 0,0
Bhaugariya 2,000 0,0 0,0
Japani 1,000 0,0 0,0
Singapoo 900 0,0 0,0
Itopiya 100 0,0 0,0
Pasirose 14,606,000 100.00 0.19

Majudha muZimbabweEdit

Tarisai futi: Majudha muZimambwe

MaJudha akauya muZimbabwe panguva yakauya Varungu ndokuumba Chita chavo chemaJudha mugore ra 1895. Ichi chita chaitungamirwa naJoe van Praagh akava Mayor wechiJudah wekutanga muguta reHarare. Milton Park muHarare ine mugwagwa wakapiwa zita raJoe van Praagh. MuGuta reKadoma kwakambova naMayor wechiJudah akagadzwa mugore ra1956; murume uyu ainzi Robert Sternberg.

Hugari hwemaJudah munyika ye Zimbabwe hwaderera kubva pahwaive panguva yeRusununguko. Vamwe vavo vakatamira kuAfurika Chamhembe, vamwe vachienda kuIsiraeri, Amerika nekuYuropu. MaJudha anozivikanwa munhoroondo ye Zimbabwe anosanganisira: Alfred Beit; Dr Michael Gelfand; Professor Laurence Levy; Joe van Praagh; B.S Leon; Sam Levy; Gary Thompson nevamwe wo.

Mubayiro we NobheruEdit

Mubayiro we Nobheru wakavambwa mugore ra1901 nemururme ainzi Alfred Nobel akazvarwa kunyika yeSwidheni. Mibayiro yezvikamu zvinoti: Fundoyetsimba, Chemishonga, Ruambamuta kana Mushonga, Uvaranomwe, uye Rugare yakatanga kupiwa mugore ra1901. Mubayiro weNobheru weRugare (Peace Prize) inopiwa kuOsiro, Norweyi, mimwe mibayiro inopiwa kuStokuhomu, Swidheni. Kunonzi chikamu gumi nemanomwe kubva muzana (18%) chemibayiro weNobheru chakatorwa nemaJudah kubva pakavambwa mibayiro iyi.

Rushigido rwemaJudahEdit

Rushigido (Holocaust) raiva jambwa rokuurayiwa kukuru kwemaJudha munguva yakarwiwa Hondo yePasirose yeChipiri. Urwu rushambwa rwakatungamirwa naAdolf Hitler neBato reNazi avo vakakonzera kuurayiwa kwemaJudha vaigara muJerumani nevamwe vaigara kune mamwe matunhu akanga akapambwa neJerumani munguva iyi kuYuropu. Nyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzine fungidziro yokuti maJudha vakaurayiwa nejambwa iri vakasvika mamiriyoni matanhatu (6m). Shoko rekuti Holocaust rinoreva burnt whole, saka kwedu kuChishona kwanzi rushigido kureva kuti muviri wemunhu waipiswa zvakaperera. Kushigida kana kushikita - to burn utterly.